請翻開講義,然後點擊右面的數字 01 - 20

 

 
請翻開講義,然後點擊右面的數字 21 - 40

 

 
請翻開講義,然後點擊右面的數字 41 - 60

 

 
請翻開講義,然後點擊右面的數字 61 - 80

 

 
請翻開講義,然後點擊右面的數字 81 - 100  

 

請翻開講義,然後點擊右面的數字 101 - 120  
請翻開講義,然後點擊右面的數字 12 1- 141  
 

 

國際音標  International Phonetic Alphabets  <請翻開國際音標講義,然後點擊左面藍色的字

 

 

  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24
 

 

CONSONANTS

 

 

 

 

p

pen

pen

b

bad

bæd

t

tea

ti:

d

did

did

k

cat

kæt

            g

get

get

 

chain

tʃeI n

jam

dȝæm

f

fall

fɔ: l

v

van

væn

ɵ

thin

ɵI: n


ð

this

ðis

 

s

see

si:

z

zoo

zu:

ʃ

shoe

ʃu:

з

vision

vIз n

h

hat

hæt

m

man

mæn

n

now

naʊ

ŋ

sing

s Iŋ

l

leg

leg

r

red

red

j

yes

jes

w

wet

wet

  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21      
VOWELS & DIPTHONGS i:

see

si:

I

sIt

sIt

e

ten

ten

 

æ

cat

kæt

 

a:

father

fa:ð

ɔ:

saw

:

  (ɔ)

got

gt

u(ʊ)

put

put

too

u:

tu:

 

^

cup

kp

 

: (з:)

fur

fз:

 

about

baut

 

eI

say

seI

ʊ

go

gʊ

aI

my

maI

ɔI

boy

I

now

naʊ

I

near

nI

e

hair

he

ʊ

pure

pju

ju

you

ju

     

有一個字是由兩個或多過兩個單音組成,讀高音的單音上,在國際音標裡會有一個豆號在前上面的, 例如  about 的音標是   ə' b aʊt

Remember if you have a word with more than one syllable, the syllable pronounced with a higher pitch will have a comma placed immediately placed before that syllable.  e.g. ə ' b aʊt

 

 

TENSE 時態

 

Present Tense

Verb stem 動詞原形,例子:“sing”Present Tense 現在式)
記住:第三身單數動詞要加 ’s’

I sing every day. 第一身,每天,即習慣性的,動詞不變
You sing every day. 第二身,動詞不變
She/He sings in school every day. Mary sings every day.第三身單數,動詞要加 ’s’
They/The boys sing every day. 主詞複數(雖然是第三身)動詞不用加“s/es”
The sun rises in the east. 真理 ,因太陽一定是從東方升起的

 

 

 

Present Continuous Tense 現在進行式

Present  Continuous  Tense 現在進行式,即在動詞後加- ing;

而動詞前要有 “verb-to-be” (動詞表述詞,是助動詞的一種

 

 

•I am singing now. 第一身用 ‘am’

•We are singing now. 複數用 “are”

•You are  singing now. 第二身 用 ‘are'
•She/He is singing now. Mary/John is singing now. 第三身單數用 ’is’
•It is singing now. "It" 都是第三身,如上
•They / The boys are singing now. The students are singing now. 第三身,是複數,動詞前用 ‘are'

 

 

 
 
 

Past Tense 過去式 

注意動詞是過去時態的

 

•I gave Mary an apple yesterday.
•You gave Mary an apple yesterday.
•He gave Mary an apple yesterday.
•It gave Mary an apple yesterday.
•They gave Mary an apple yesterday.

 

 

 

Past Continuous Tense 過去進行式

即在過去某段時間進行中
 

•I was eating a banana at about 3 o’clock yesterday.

• We were eating bananas at about 3 o'clock yesterday.

 
•You were eating a banana at about  3 o’clock yesterday.
 
•He was eating a banana at about 3 o’clock yesterday.
 
•It was eating a banana at about 3 o’clock yesterday.
 
•They were eating a banana at about 3 o’clock yesterday.

 

 

 

 

Present Perfect Tense
現在(由以前至今)完成式;

[No time mentioned 記住:不能指明時間];雖然其實是過去了的事情,但著重點是事情的完成。
助動詞 ‘have第一身,第二身,第三身複數’   或   ‘has第三身單數’ 加   + Past Participle 過去分詞

 

•I have eaten a banana.

•You have eaten a banana.

•It has eaten a banana.

•He/she has eaten a banana.

•They have eaten a banana.

 
•  I have lived in Epsom for 10 years. (由以前至今為止,你已經住了10年。但沒有說明現在還是否仍住在Epsom),如果現在搬了去 Sutton 那麼你可以說 I have lived in Epsom for 10 years,but I live in Sutton now.

•  假如現在仍是住在Epsom ,要這樣說:I have been living in Epsom for 10 years. 這就是 Present Perfect 
    Continuous Tense。 即  have / has + been + verb-ing

 

 

 
 
 

Present Tense 現在式 and 和  Present perfect Tense 現在完成式在同一個句子裡

這個是用來表達一些習慣性做的兩件事,一個發生在前,一個發生在後。

 

I always go to school after I have eaten some fruit. 我吃水果發生在先
He always goes to church when his mother has gone. 他媽媽出外發生在先

• It always eats after it's master has gone. 主人出外發生在先

They play football every week after they have finished school. 他們放了學在先
You eat apple daily when everyone has left home. 人人返回家後-發生在先

 

 

Past Tense 過去式 and和 Past Perfect Tense 過去完成式在同一句子裡

這個是用來表達一些


過去的兩件事請,一個發生在前,一個發生在後。

 

•I went to school at three o’clock yesterday after my Dad had gone to work. 畫線的行動在先
•She danced yesterday after her mother had left home. 畫線的行動在先
•It fell from the tree after the hunter had fire a shot. 畫線的行動在先
•You left Hong Kong after the war had finished. 畫線的行動在先
•We did not feed the dog because we had not worked for a long time.畫線的行動在先

 

•一般來說,你不會在只有一個動作的句子裡用Past Perfect Tense,如:I had taken my shoes. 除非有先後動作的比較;
•在一句中,發生在前者用Past Perfect Tense,後者則用 Past Tense便可。如:I had taken my shoes before the shop keeper came.

 


 Future Tense 將來式

用來表達一件未曾發生,但將會發生的事

I shall go to school tomorrow.

We shall go to school next week.

He will go to school next month.

It will go to the house next year.

They will go to school tomorrow.

 

 

 

 

 

什麼叫“Verb-to-be [VTB]”

 

什麼叫做 “Verb-to-be”(動詞表述詞,是助動詞的一種)

例如:(現在式:am, is, are),    (過去式: was, were,) ,   (現在完成式:has been, have been,)

(過去完成式: had been), (將來式shall be, will be)

 

用途:

(I) VTB放在動詞之前,如:“is” + singing 用來幫助表達一個在進行中的動作。

按第一身 (I),第二身 (you),第三身(He/She/It) 或複數(They / The girls) 的不同,表達的形式不同,

 

如:"am 第一身用 I am singing", "is 第 三身單數用 He is singing", "are 第三身及/或複數用 They are singing",  這都是現在式

 

然而,"was: 第一身 I was singing”。 第二身 You were singing”,和第三身單數用  He was singing",   "were“: 第三身複數 They were singing。", 這裡都是過去式

 

(II) VTB 放在形容詞之前

例子:"現在:am", "are", "過去 was" "were" , "現在完成 have been, has been, 過去完成 had been", "將來 shall be, will be"

 

  “fat”是肥,故此是個形容詞,其他如:"tall", "big", "hot", "quick", 等都是形容詞。

 

(現在式:I am fat. You are fat,  He is fat; It is fat, They are fat).

(過去式:I was fat. You were fat.  He was fat. It was fat. They were fat.)

(现在完成式:I have been 曾經 fat. You have been fat. He has been fat. It has been fat. They have been fat.)
(將來式:I shall be fat. You will be fat. She will be fat. It will be fat. They will be fat.

 

在一句當中要表達動作的先後:一個 present tense/ 發生在後,其他的 present perfect tense/ perfect perfect VTB 發生在前。

 

I eat more when I have been [present perfect VTB] hungry.  I am greedy when I have eaten [present perfect+past participle] lemon.

 

在一句當中要表達動作的先後: past tense/past VTB 發生在後,而 past perfect tense/ past perfect VTB 是發生在先

I left Hong Kong after I had been [past perfect VTB] fat.  試比較這句:I was angry after I had eaten [past perfect+past participle] + a lot.

 

(II) VTB 在一句當中表達是被動語 e.g.

現在式VTB - I am chosen by him. We are chosen by you. He is chosen by her. She is chosen by them.

過去式VTB - I was chosen by her. We were chosen by him. She was chosen by them.

現在完成式VTB - I have been chosen by you. We have been chosen by her. He has been  chosen by me. They have been chosen by him.

過去完成式VTB - I had been chosen by you. We had been chosen by her. He had been chosen by me. They had been chosen by him.

 

 

 

什麼叫規則 (regular)動詞? 又什麼叫不規則 (Irregular)     動詞?

 

  有關以上的不同 TENSES 時態, 一下用以列表顯示出來,會更加明白

 

        

        

動詞原形

Verb stem/

PRESENT 現在

PAST過去式

PAST PARTICIPLE過去分詞

          Regular verbs過去式與過去分詞都只是加 ‘ed’  例如

 work 做工

 face 面對

 fear 懼怕

worked

faced

feared

worked

faced

feared

 

         Irregular verbs 不規則動詞 - 三種情況:

A) 過去式與過去分詞各不一樣,與動詞原形不一樣,

   e.g. GO    WENT    GONE  
 

                                                                                
B)
過去式與過去分詞一樣, 但他們與動詞原形不一樣:

   e.g. BUY   BOUGHT    BBBOUGHT                   

 

C) 動詞原形, 過去式, 過去分詞都是一樣:20, 21,85

 

  

 

PRESENT, PAST 和 PRESENT PERFECT 的关系

 

  PRESENT TENSE  現在式    

           1st Person 第一身

2nd person第二身

3rd Person 第三身

3rd Person 第三身雙數

                                                       I go to school.

You go to school.

He/she/John goes to school.

It goes to school.

They go to school.

The boys go to school.

 

 

PAST TENSE 過去式

            1st Person 第一身

2nd person第二身

3rd person第三身單數

3rd person第三身雙數

                                    I went to school.     We went to school

 

 

You went to school.

He/she/John went to school.

It went to school. The dog ate the meat.

They went to school.

The girls went to school.

The pupils went to school

 

 

 

 

 

PRESENT PERFECT TENSE 現在完成式  No time mentioned 不用說明時間

               1st Person 第一身

2nd person第二身

3rd person第三身單數

3rd person第三身雙數

                I have gone home.  We have gone home.

 

You have gone home.

He/she/Mary has gone home.

It has gone home.

They have gone home.

The pupils have gone home.

 

 

 

 

   

有關 PRESENT PERFECT 現在完成式 (其實意思不只單是現在,而是由以前一直到現在的這一段時間的意思-其中做過的事), 例子:I have met her. 我曾經見過她雖然這件事時已經過去了, 然而它強調的   是在過去至現在這段時間 有發生過的事情;著重事情而不是時間。

 

              1st Person 第一身

2nd person第二身

3rd person第三身單數

3rd person第三身雙數

               I have met her.

You have met her.

He/She/John met her.

It has met her.

They have met her.

The students have met her.

 

 
 

短文朗讀

 

Short Essay 1-  reading (請點擊來聽)
Short Essay 2 - reading (請點擊來聽)
Short Essay 3 - reading (請點擊來聽)
Short Essay 4 - reading (請點擊來聽)
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Short Essay 11 - reading (請點擊來聽)
Short Essay 12 - reading (請點擊來聽)
Short Essay 13 - reading (請點擊來聽)
Short Essay 14 - reading (請點擊來聽)
Short Essay 15 - reading (請點擊來聽)
Short Essay 16 - reading (請點擊來聽)
Short Essay 17- reading (請點擊來聽)
Short Essay18 - reading (請點擊來聽)
Short Essay 19 - reading (請點擊來聽)
Short Essay 20 - reading (請點擊來聽)
Short Essay 21 - reading (請點擊來聽)
Short Essay 22 - reading (請點擊來聽)
Short Essay 23 - reading (請點擊來聽)
Short Essay 24 - reading (請點擊來聽)
Short Essay 25 - reading (請點擊來聽)
Short Essay 26 - reading (請點擊來聽)
Short Essay 27 - reading (請點擊來聽)

 

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